Monday, August 1, 2011

Scarlet rice wine of northern Fujian

(Note to my readers: sorry about the lapse in recipes lately... had carpal tunnel surgery on both hands in July, so while I've been cooking away, it's been a bit of a challenge to type. But be prepared for a deluge of new dishes in the weeks to come!)

Nothing symbolizes northern Fujian-style cooking more than its red wine lees, called either hongzao in Mandarin or ang chow in Fujianese. Made pretty much in the same as the Homemade Fermented Rice that we looked at a few months ago, this local concoction is both flavored and colored by a remarkable ingredient called red yeast rice -- or hongqumi -- a type of rice grain coated with the bacteria Monascus pupureus.

The Chinese have enjoyed the health benefits of this cholesterol-lowering bacteria for countless years, and the West has only recently started to pay attention to red yeast rice as a medicine, but few know how good it tastes when brewed the right way. In fact, this is so delicious that you could be easily forgiven if you made it just for its deep crimson hue and delicious winy aroma.

Red wine yeast
You sometimes can find it already fermented and ready to use in its paste form, where it will usually be located in the refrigerated section of a Chinese grocery store. However, if you enjoyed making your own Homemade Fermented Rice, this recipe will be a snap. It's pretty much the same recipe, just with a bit more water plus the red yeast rice.

The only unusual ingredient is that red yeast rice, but it is becoming more available nowadays in the dry goods section of a Chinese market, usually near the beans or herbs. Whenever you run across it, snag a bag and store it in the freezer or refrigerator along with any Chinese wine yeast balls that you have left over from your last wine-making session.

Again, the main requirement for success is that absolutely everything be spanking clean. Oil should never touch anything, so use only freshly cleaning utensils and containers. The glutinous rice and the red yeast rice need to be soaked ahead of time, which means that you should start this the evening before you plan to put everything together. 

The main problem here, as with the Homemade Fermented Rice and the Sweet Pickled Garlic Cloves, is that you will have to be patient. Months are needed to turn the rice into this aromatic seasoning, but you can keep it up on your shelf while it ferments, enjoying its color while it takes its sweet time to mature. 

You will be able to decant off the liquid after a couple of weeks, and this will also age into a nice cooking wine. The bright red lees (or solids) will store well in the refrigerator once the fermentation is complete, and the wine too will keep a long time -- even improving -- as it ages. Do note that commercial red wine lees are usually salted, so feel free to add a bit of salt if you don't plan on using it up quickly.

I've suggested making a relatively small amount of red wine lees, but if you already have worked with it and cook Fujian-style dishes often, the recipe is easily doubled. The wine is great for cooking, and as with just about anything alcoholic, it only improves with age. And be sure to make your own Fermented Bean Curd with it... life will never be the same!

Fujian's red wine lees
Hongzao  紅糟 
Northern Fujian
About 3 cups wine and about a pound of red wine lees

1 pound round sticky (a/k/a sweet or glutinous) rice (nuomi)
2 ounces red wine yeast rice (hongqumi)
Cooled, filtered boiled water
1 tablespoon sugar
1 Chinese wine yeast ball
1 tablespoon cornstarch

Steaming rice
1. Place the rice in a strainer, tossing out any bits of debris that you run across. Rinse the rice under tap water, and then place it in a medium work bowl. Cover the rice with cool tap water by about 2 inches. Leave the rice to soak for 8 hours, or overnight.

2. While the rice is soaking, place the red wine yeast rice in  a very clean 2-quart jar with a lid. Cover the rice with 3 cups cool, filtered water, add the sugar, and stir. Cover the jar and let it sit 8 hours or overnight to wake up the bacteria in the yeast.

3. The next morning, steam and rinse the rice as directed here

4. While the rice is steaming, place the wine yeast ball in a small bowl and barely cover it with cool, filtered boiled water so that it can soften. After the rice has been steamed and rinsed, smash the wine yeast ball with your fingers or a fork. Add the rice, the smooshed yeast ball and soaking water, and the cornstarch to the jar with the red wine yeast rice. Stir the ingredients together with a very clean wooden spoon. Cover the jar loosely so that carbon dioxide can escape but insects can't go in. Place the jar in a warm place as directed in the Homemade Rice Wine recipe, and stir it or shake it once a day for a week to evenly distribute the yeast and its food. 

5. After a few days, check the the jar. If it smells alcoholic and the rice has formed a raft that floats on top of the wine, remove the jar and place it in a cool area out of direct sunlight, but keep the lid only loosely screwed on.

Bubbling wine
6. When the rice has broken down and has formed a much thinner raft on top of the wine, it is time to strain out the solids. Place a few layers of very clean, fine cheesecloth in a very clean sieve over a bowl. Carefully ladle the rice and wine into the cheesecloth, giving the wine a chance to dribble down into the bowl before adding more. When all of the wine has decanted into the bowl, bring the corners of the cheesecloth together and tie the bundle. Place a small plate on top of the cheesecloth bundle and then put a pound can on top of the plate to weight the lees down and extract as much wine as possible. Cover everything with a clean towel to keep out insects, and leave the lees to slowly drip for a couple of hours. The lees should end up being moist but not wet and have the consistency of fairly dry mashed potatoes.

7. Empty the drained lees into a very clean jar, label it, cover the jar, and refrigerate. It will keep a very long time this way, but you can mix in a bit of salt if you want to keep it for more than a few months. The wine can be decanted into very clean bottles; discard any solids at the bottom of the bowl, or use them in any dish that calls for the red rice wine lees.


  1. Hi Carolyn,

    I've been making fermented rice regularly, using your recipe for Homemade Fermented Rice. The results are great, thank you!

    I have also tried making the Fujian red rice wine. Do you have any recipes using the red wine lees, other than the fermented tofu? Probably a chicken or pork dish?

    Thanks again.

    1. Thanks for the nice comments, Dominic! Yes, we have a couple here on the blog. One is for a traditional braised chicken (, which actually can be made with pork or lamb instead, if you prefer. And I also created a roasted chicken using these red lees ( that is very tasty.

      The great fried eels of Fuzhou that have these red lees in both the marinade and crispy batter are coming up before long. And the Taiwanese use it for some really great dishes, as well. Stay tuned!

    2. Hi Carolyn! Thank you for the recipe. I tried this scarlet rice wine but I wonder whether the water too much? This is 1 pound rice with 3 cups water, compare with your fermented rice wine recipes 3 pound rice with 2 cup water. I couldn't make the well, because the rice soaked in the water, hard to push them aside to wall the container. Do I have to pound the rice wine yeast?
      Why we need some cornstarch.Can we doubled the recipes? I did double the recipes because I have big jar.Thank you so much for your help. It's been 3 days I made this, I haven't smell any alcoholic smell from the jar. Thank you again!

    3. Hi Lisa! The amounts are correct. This is different from the white fermented rice: you don't need to make a well, as (you are correct) there is a lot of liquid. Like the directions say, just stir the water and rice together and let it ferment.

      You do not have to pound the yeast. Cover it with some warm water (step 4), let it soften, and then crush it with your fingers or a fork.

      Cornstarch and sugar are used to give the yeast something that it can eat quickly and easily. After the yeast has multiplied and the little creatures have grown stronger, they will feed on the rice.

      Yes, you can double the recipe. (I always do!)

      Keep the jar in a warm place, and you should start to see bubbles before you smell the wine. The yeast will be growing and eating, and you can tell this is happening because of the bubbles, which are carbon dioxide. After the sugars ferment is when you will be able to smell the wine. Have patience! :)

  2. Do you have a time frame for fermentation? It just says months in the writeup.

    1. It takes at least a month for the flavor to really develop, in my experience. But this is not written in stone, as it depends upon how fresh your wine yeast ball is, how warm the kitchen is, and so forth.

  3. That's what i'm looking for, thanks so much for sharing with us.

  4. Thank you very much for sharing this .
    I am ready to make this , but i have a question befor starting : On # 6 : How long does it take ( you just said WHEN ...) for the rice break down to know that it's ready to strain out the solids ?
    Thanks again

    1. You're quite welcome! Each batch will take a different amount of time, depending upon the heat of your kitchen, the freshness of the yeast, and so forth.

      Keep an eye on the fermenting rice. After a couple of weeks the layer on top of the wine will thin out, the rice will look like it is crumbling and most of the grains will have sunk to the bottom of the jar. That means that yeast has eaten up the sugars in the rice and it's ready to be strained out.

      Hope this helps!

  5. Hello Mrs .Carolyn , thank you for sweet response .
    May I have one more question :
    - How big is Chinese wine yeast ball that you use in this recipe ? I have 4 different sizes of them , i don't know which one to use .
    Thank you so much for sharing the recipes with us .

    1. Hi again! A Chinese yeast ball is a little bit smaller than a golfball or pingpong ball, around 2 cm in diameter. The ones I've seen in Vietnamese grocery stores tend to be much smaller.

  6. Thank you very much for quick reply . I will try to make this wine soon .
    Happy Easter

  7. Hi Carolyn, thank you for changing my life. I made the fermented bean curds after making the red wine Lee's according to your recipe and there is no way I can turn back! Thank you so much!!!!
    I have one question about the red wine lees - can I leave the fermenting rice for two, three months without straining? You mentioned that it would age well into nice cooking wine. Does it have to be strained prior to being "aged"? Does leaving the solids make a difference to the end products?

    1. You're so sweet, Cindy. Thank you!

      You can leave the solids in the wine for a while with not much change in quality. The only thing that might happen is that when the solids have released all of their sugar, they will then just sit there, and sometimes a certain mustiness develops. In my experience (an, of course, yours may differ), the quality of the lees keeps better if they are strained out and refrigerated. A bit of salt also helps to keep them tasty for longer.

      I like to keep the solids separate because they are much easier to use that way. I first strain out the solids into a clean jar, and then set the clear liquid aside in bottles to age for a year or two to develop its flavor.

  8. Hello carolyn,
    I was wondering when is the right month to start making the wine? Is it too late now since its may already? And around what temperature range would be the best?

  9. You can make this any time of the year. It's best if you can control the temperature to be around 70 degrees F | 21 degrees C, as then it's warm enough to encourage the fermentation, but not so hot that things grow too quickly. You can adjust the temperature by placing the crock in a cool area in summer or in an oven warmed by only a pilot light or electric light.

    1. Thank you very much! It’s already been 5 days since I started and it smell good already. I stumbled across this blog a long time ago but couldn’t find the red yeast rice in my asian now I’m very excited. Oh yeah, on the 4th day it did have white fuzz mold but I removed it since i read on your other post on the glutinous rice wine that it was an okay sign, if the wine doesn’t smell foul.

  10. how long does the red yeast rice and rice balls last in the freezer ?

    1. If they are fresh and you wrap them up well (in resealable freezer bags), they should be good for quite a while. Brands vary, though, and how fresh they actually are when you buy them are two factors that are hard to control.

      Red yeast rice probably will be fine, but the yeast balls can be a bit more iffy. The best thing to do when you plan to use them, and you're not sure, is to test them like bread yeast: let a ball wake up with warm water and sugar, add some warm steamed rice, and see if you get any action.

  11. Hi hi. I tried a batch and turns out great!

    Problem is, it's really hard to find red yeast rice where I'm at. (I managed to snag a bag when I was in NY)

    So I've been trying to find the exact science behind the need of red yeast rice.

    Do you need that strain of yeast? or is it the red rice that's needed? Or both?

    On amazon I can find extracts of it and what not. But not sure if the yeast is still alive.

    Any advice?

  12. On a similar note. If you wanted only lees. Could you just add more glutinous rice to the batch after you take out the lees? In theory most the rice yeast and red yeast are still active right?